What did Pervez Musharraf do?

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WASIMALISHAH
Jan 07, 2020 12:07 PM 0 Answers
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What did Pervez Musharraf do?

WASIMALISHAH
- Jan 07, 2020 12:13 PM

Pervez Musharraf

Pervez Musharraf
پرویز مشرف  (Urdu)
Pervez Musharraf - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos - 2008 (cropped).jpg

Musharraf at World Economic Forum in Davos, 2008
10th President of Pakistan
In-office
20 June 2001 – 18 August 2008
Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali
Chaudhry Shujaat Hussain
Shaukat Aziz
Mian Soomro (Caretaker)
Yousaf Raza Gillani
Preceded by Muhammad Rafiq Tarar
Succeeded by Muhammad Mian Soomro (Acting)
Chief Executive of Pakistan
In-office
12 October 1999 – 21 November 2002
President Muhammad Rafiq Tarar
Preceded by Nawaz Sharif (Prime Minister)
Succeeded by Zafarullah Khan Jamali (Prime Minister)
Minister of Defence
In-office
12 October 1999 – 23 October 2002
Preceded by Nawaz Sharif
Succeeded by Rao Sikandar Iqbal
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee
In-office
8 October 1998 – 7 October 2001
Preceded by Jehangir Karamat
Succeeded by Aziz Khan
Chief of Army Staff
In-office
6 October 1998 – 28 November 2007
Preceded by Jehangir Karamat
Succeeded by Ashfaq Parvez Kayani
Personal details
Born
Syed Pervez Musharraf

11 August 1943 (age 76)
Delhi, British India (present-day India)

Nationality Pakistani
Political party All Pakistan Muslim League
Other political
affiliations
Pakistan Muslim League (Q)
Spouse(s) Sehba Musharraf (m. 1968)
Children 2
Alma mater Forman Christian College
Pakistan Military Academy
Command and Staff College
National Defence University
Royal College of Defence
Net worth ₨645 million (US$4.6 million) (2013)
Awards Order of Excellence Nishan-e-Imtiaz.png Nishan-e-Imtiaz
Medal of Good Conduct Tamgha-e-Basalat.png Tamgha-e-Basalat
Star of Good Conduct Sitara-e-Basalat.png Imtiazi Sanad
Spange des König-Abdulaziz-Ordens.png Order of al-Saud
Military service
Allegiance  Pakistan
Branch/service  Pakistan Army
Years of service 1961–2007
Rank OF-9 Pakistan Army.svgUS-O10 insignia.svg General
Unit Regiment of Artillery
Commands I Corps
Special Services Group
DG Military operations
40th Army Division, Okara
Battles/wars Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
Siachen conflict
Kargil War
Afghan Civil War (1996–2001)
1999 Pakistani coup d’état
2001–2002 India-Pakistan standoff
Insurgency in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Syed Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: پرویز مشرف‎ Parvez Muśarraf; born 11 August 1943) is a Pakistani politician and retired four-star general of the Pakistan Army, who was the tenth president of Pakistan. He held the presidency from 2001 until 2008 when he tendered his resignation to avoid impeachment.

Born in Delhi during the British Raj, Musharraf was raised in Karachi and Istanbul. He studied mathematics at Forman Christian College in Lahore and was also educated at the Royal College of Defence Studies in the United Kingdom. Musharraf entered the Pakistan Military Academy in 1961 and was commissioned to the Pakistan Army in 1964, playing an active role in the Afghan civil war. Musharraf saw action during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 as a second lieutenant. By the 1980s, he was commanding an artillery brigade. In the 1990s, Musharraf was promoted to major general and assigned an infantry division, and later commanded the Special Services Group. Soon after, he also served as deputy military secretary and director general of military operations.

Musharraf rose to national prominence when he was promoted to four-star general by Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in 1998, making Musharraf the head of the armed forces. He led the Kargil infiltration that almost brought India and Pakistan to a full-fledged war in 1999. After months of contentious relations between Sharif and Musharraf, Sharif unsuccessfully attempted to remove Musharraf as the army’s leader. In retaliation, the army staged a coup d’état in 1999, which allowed Musharraf to take over Pakistan as president in 2001. He subsequently placed Sharif under strict house arrest before launching official criminal proceedings against him.

Musharraf initially remained the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs and the Chief of the Army Staff, relinquishing the former position upon confirmation of his presidency. However, he remained the Army Chief until retiring in 2007. The initial stages of his presidency featured controversial wins in a state referendum to grant him a five-year term limit, and a general election in 2002. During his presidency, he advocated for the Third Way, adopting a synthesis of conservatism and socialism. Musharraf reinstated the constitution in 2002, though it was heavily amended within the Legal Framework Order. He appointed Shaukat Aziz to replace Sharif in 2004 and oversaw directed policies against terrorism, becoming a key player in the American-led war on terror.

Musharraf pushed for social liberalism under his enlightened moderation program and promoted economic liberalisation, while he also banned trade unions. Musharraf’s presidency coincided with a rise of overall gross domestic product by around 50%; in the same period, domestic savings declined, and economic inequality rose at a rapid rate. Musharraf’s government has also been accused of human rights abuses, and he survived a number of assassination attempts during his presidency. When Aziz departed as prime minister, and after approving the suspension of the judicature in 2007, Musharraf’s position weakened dramatically. Tendering his resignation to avoid impeachment in 2008, Musharraf emigrated to London in a self-imposed exile. His legacy as a leader is mixed; his era saw the emergence of a more assertive middle class, but his open disregard for civilian institutions greatly weakened Pakistan.

Musharraf returned to Pakistan in 2013 to participate in that year’s general election but was disqualified from participating after the country’s high courts issued arrest warrants for him and Aziz for their alleged involvement in the assassinations of Nawab Akbar Bugti and Benazir Bhutto. Upon Sharif’s re-election in 2013, he initiated high treason charges against Musharraf for implementing the emergency rule and suspending the constitution in 2007. The case against Musharraf continued after Sharif’s removal from office in 2017, the same year in which Musharraf was declared an “absconder” in the Bhutto assassination case by virtue of moving to Dubai. In 2019, Musharraf was sentenced to death in absentia for the treason charge
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