Mudassir Ali
Dec 19, 2019 03:11 PM 0 Answers
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Mudassir Ali
- Dec 19, 2019 03:11 PM


Kashmir was a part of Mauryan Empire and then Kushans came which made it centre of learning for Buddhism by organizing 4th Buddhist Council.
From 5th to 14th century, various Hindu dynasties ruled Kashmir.(One dynasty called Korkota also constructed Martand Sun Temple.)
Then, Islam came and the Sultanate of Kashmir from 14th to 16th came into existence. Mughals in 1586(read Akbar) followed by Afghans in 1751(Ahmed Shah Abbali of Durrani Empire defeated Mughals) and finally Ranjit Singh brought Sikh Empire in 1819.
In 1846, British defeated Sikhs in Anglo Sikh war and made Dogra rulers the Emperors.(Dogras were under the Sikhs but they helped British) Maharaja Gulab Singh had offered a whooping 75 lacs to British for the same.

2. 1947 EVENTS

Then ruler of Kashmir, MAHARAJA HARI SINGH wanted Kashmir to be Neutral at the time of independence.
He wanted to make Kashmir as the Asia’s Switzerland.
Sheikh Abdulla was parallely running a National Conference Party and wanted that there shouldn’t be any ruler rather People should be rulers of themselves.
INC supported Sheikh Abdulla.
Now JINNAH had his own logic and according to him India and Pak is divided basically on the two nation theory of religions. So the 77% Muslim majority state of Kashmir should join Pakistan.
Initially Maharaja singed a standstill agreement,i.e. everything will be same for Pak including trade and communication but we’ll not join Pak.
Now in Poonch Area, a rebellion happened between British soldiers and Hari singh’s soldiers.
Muslims were thrown from Jammu and thus they moved to Pakistan. Now Pakistan got this reason and sent their Pashtun tribal fighters (they were basically from the Northwest provinces attached to Afghanistan) to attack Valley of Kashmir on 22nd Oct.
Through Baramula and Udi, Srinagar was also now under attack and Poonch region was also covered.


Now Maharaja Hari Singh called Indian Govt for help and India asked to accede in lieu of military help.
INSTRUMENT OF ACCESSION was signed on 26th Oct 1947 which was rejected by Pak claiming that it was under duress by an unpopular ruler, not representing the public will.
Hari Singh made Sheikh Abdulla as the head of the administration temporarily.
Indian army gone and first Indo Pak war also called Kashmir war happened which was mainly faught in Hilly areas like KARGIL & DRAS and India threw the Pak back.
BUT with the help of local leaders during this whole period of India and Maharaja agreement, Pakistan had made the Aazad Kashmir government already there.
In 1948, India went to UN for solving Kashmir conflict.
UNCIP( UN commission for India and Pak) was formed (which eventually failed at last). And a security council was adopted.
RESOLUTION 47 OF UNSC: Three consequential non binding steps were given.
A) Pak should withdraw all Nationals and irregulars from Kashmir.
B) India should withdraw it’s army and should keep a minimal force in the region.
C) Plebiscite to ascertain people’s will.

(So as we all know neither of the above followed till date.)

In 1948, ceasefire line became LOC and a de facto border was thus made.(Note that Gilgit&Balgistan and Azad Kashmir are two different administrations in Pak)
Also a line of actual control was made between India and China rather Ladakh and Aksai Chin after 1962 war. Pakistan ceded Trans Karakoram tract to China in 1965.


Sheikh Abdullah was made PM of Kashmir in 1948. Article 370 of Indian Constitution was framed to “temporarily” give few special allowances to state of J&K like laws will be made by state assembly and any outsider will not be allowed to buy any property within state.
Article 370 was brought up by Gopal Swami Aiyengar and Sheikh Abdullah. BR ambedkar hadn’t drafted it.
1953: Sheikh Abdullah removed from PM post and was jailed for 11 years.
1964: He was released and then talks with Nehru begun but death of Nehru again disrupted talks and Abdullah agin returned to jail.
1974: Finally in Indira Sheikh accords he was made CM. And he died in 1982.
Following his death, his son Mr. Faruk Abdullah was made CM. Also amid all this, India captured Siachin glacier in 1984.
Militancy in 90s: 1987 elections were allegedly rigged to bring NC-INC into power. And due to this biased election, many protests begun in J&K and Pak took advantage of this by provoking topic of independent Kashmir through Groups like JK Liberation front and Hizbul mujahiddeen.
Young Kashmiris were sent across LOC and trained by terrorist groups in Pak.


In Jan 1990, Kashmiri pandits faced large scale violence and ethic cleansing from extremists in valley and threatened to leave.
On 19–20 Jan, More than 3 lakh Kashmiri Pandits fled overnight due to the lawless condition in state.
Militancy and violence led Govt of India to apply the Armed Forces Special Powers Act in state in 1990.
Thus, Army started many counter insurgency acts.


Militancy in Kashmir had been in control till 2004 than what it was between 90s and 2000. But still it’s present in the state.
Till now I’ve told you the facts and happenings of Kashmir issue. Now I’m summing up this by my personal opinion. Since I’m an Indian so I’ll always say that Kashmir was,is and will be an Integral part of India. Kashmir is the beautiful crown on Indian map and I wish one day the deviated youths of Kashmir will also understand this that it’s better to be with India than to be with a terrorism producing state.

Hope you liked it!

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