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Originally Answered: What is vitamin B?
Vitamin B don’t exist as a single vitamin as Vitamin C.
B vitamins are a class of water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. Though these vitamins share similar names, research shows that they are chemically distinct vitamins that often coexist in the same foods. In general, dietary supplements containing all eight are referred to as a vitamin B complex. Individual B vitamin supplements are referred to by the specific number or name of each vitamin: B1 = thiamine, B2 = riboflavin, B3 = niacin, etc. Some are better known by name than number: niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin and folate.
Each B vitamin is either a cofactor (generally a coenzyme) for key metabolic processes or is a precursor needed to make one.
List of B vitamins
Vitamin B1 = thiamine – A coenzyme in the catabolism of sugars and amino acids.
Vitamin B2= riboflavin- A precursor of cofactors called FAD and FMN, which are needed for flavoprotein enzyme reactions, including activation of other vitamins
Vitamin B3 = niacin (nicotinic acid), nicotinamide riboside – A precursor of coenzymes called NAD and NADP, which are needed in many metabolic processes.
Vitamin B5 =pantothenic acid -A precursor of coenzyme A and therefore needed to metabolize many molecules.
Vitamin B6= pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine- A coenzyme in many enzymatic reactions in metabolism.
Vitamin B7 =biotin -A coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes, needed for synthesis of fatty acids and in gluconeogenesis.
Vitamin B9 = folate – A precursor needed to make, repair, and methylate DNA; a cofactor in various reactions; especially important in aiding rapid cell division and growth, such as in infancy and pregnancy. Synthetic folate is known as folic acid.
Vitamin B12 = various cobalamins; commonly cyanocobalamin or methylcobalamin in vitamin supplements – A coenzyme involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body, especially affecting DNA synthesis and regulation, but also fatty acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism.
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