What was a turning point in the history of Pakistan?

Mudassir Ali
Jan 16, 2020 07:53 AM 0 Answers
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What was a turning point in the history of Pakistan?

Mudassir Ali
- Jan 16, 2020 07:53 AM

1965 War was the biggest turning point for both India and Pakistan. Before that war both countries had very good relations despite disputes of Kashmir, Ran of Kutch, Sir Creek. PM Nehru and President Ayub had very good relationship and agreed on Sindh water treaty which is still valid even after so much hatred and animosity. India and Pakistan were both looking at strong bilateral relations while having territorial issues. In fact there was a time when PM Nehru came to Pakistan in 1960 for two weeks there were even talks of forming some kind of agreements which would make India and Pakistan a very loose form of federation.

Nehru who was extremely unhappy with PM Liaquat for forming close defence ties with US an external power eventually started to understand Pakistan’s insecurity so in 60s he was looking at long term policy of Subcontinent. He burdened himself with this task from start that Subcontinent should have Influence of India just how US, China, USSR have in their spheres.

After the death of PM Nehru that chain was broken and President Ayub after achieving some territory in Ran of Kutch decided to launch Operation Gibraltar where then foreign minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto played a key role in advising that this war can get us Kashmir as well as save the decline in popularity. Pakistan thought post Nehru India was leaderless and wanted to fully exploit the situation.

That is a small bit of history so what really happened in war and after war?

UK and USA were the major arms suppliers on both sides so in the war both refused to supply weapons which ended up driving India to USSR and Pakistan to China then later on in US lap.
Indian defence policy changed completely on Pakistan side as two front threat was materialised just in 3 years apart(1962 Sino-India War)
Pakistan came across as an aggressive and unreliable neighbor. International community shunned Pakistan for its use of asymmetric warfare to achieve political goals.
Pakistan suffered alot in terms of economy and we now celebrate Defence Day on every 6th of September while that could have been avoided.
Twice Pakistan went to IMF straight after war in 1965 and 1968 even though the debt was minimal but nevertheless country went into a financial institution which influences your internal governance.
Both India and Pakistan got fully sucked in Cold War. All three branches of Armed forced were fully equipped for potential war and USSR and US made billions.
US who was looking for serious influence in the region managed to grab Pakistan fully before the war the relationship was mutually beneficial but due to Indian success on the Punjab front a serious existential threat was materialised which led to Pakistan needing for a strong external force.
East Pakistan was left undefended and due to war ravaged economy they suffered which eventually left imbalance in the expenditure and when that Bhola Cyclone hit just before elections of 1970 Pakistan didn’t have much resources to spend.
India and USSR made full use discontent among Pakistanis and further selfishness of Bhutto and a drunkard Army Chief Yahya who despite promising Sheikh Mujeeb and even declaring him Prime Minister failed to transfer power due to pressure created by Bhutto in West Pakistan.
Kashmiris suffered the most as their status which could have eventually sorted a there not been a full scale war. There used to be 6 places where Kashmiris would cross to see the other side that ended. Issue gained interests of external powers who saw this issue as a gateway to get defence, geopolitical goals, economic influence.

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