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The first, and by far the most important, reason is that it was the name of the youngest daughter of our Prophet Muhammad ؔﷺ who is considered by traditional Muslims (both Sunni and Shia) as the perfect role model for Muslim women and also the leader of the women of Paradise. Secondly, it is the name of the wife of Imam Ali (who was married to the Prophet’s daughter).Thirdly, it is the name of the mother of Imam Hassan and Hussain, who are revered as the grandsons of the Prophet (Lady Fatima was their mother. Ali was their father)as well as considered the second and third Imams of the Prophetic Household as well as the leaders of the youth of Paradise. It is arguably the most common female name in the Muslim world and not just amongst Arabs especially if we consider its synonyms such as Zahra, Zohra, Batool, Batul etc which are other names and titles for the Prophet’s most beloved daughter. As Iqbal, the Poet of the East, wrote, “Mary the mother of Christ is only dear for being Christ’s mother but Fatima is revered for three connections: daughter of the Prophet, Wife of Ali, and mother of Hassan and Hussain”. She is commonly considered amongst the four greatest women of all time and in fact top of the list.
Following the above there have been other noteworthy women in Islamic history who have had the same name:
2. Fatima bint Asad (the mother of Imam Ali),
3. Fatima al- Sughra bint Hussain (one of the daughters of Imam Hussain)
4. Fatima bint Abd al Malik who was the wife of Umar bin Abd al Aziz, known as Umar II, the eighth of the Umayyad caliphs and who is respected as the most pious of the Banu Umayyah caliphs and a righteous caliph in his own right. Her father, brother, uncles were also all caliphs!
5. Fatima bint Musa Kazim. She was the sister of the eighth Imam, Imam Ali Rida and the daughter of the 7th Imam Imam Musa Kazim and her shrine is in Qom, Iran. She is known as Fatima al Masuma in Arabic and Fatemeh Masumeh in Farsi meaning Fatima the Innocent on account of her piety and holiness.
6. Fatima Umm Khair (or Umm Khair Fatima) was the blessed mother of the greatest Sufi saint Shaykh Abdul Qadir al Jilani al Baghdadi, founder of the Qadiri Sufi order.
7. Fatima Jinnah, the sister of the founder of Pakistan.
8. The shrine of Our Lady of Fatima is a famous Christian shrine near Fatima in Portugal which I guess could also lead Arab Christians to name their daughters Fatima.
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